Chaque Consul et Proconsul ayant droit à deux [...] Légions, cela donne un total possible de huit Légions. The consuls and proconsuls lost their military authority, but the titles retained considerable prestige. [8], Modern writing on leadership tends to stress the distinction between "administration" on the one hand and "policy" on the other. As nouns the difference between consulate and consul is that consulate is the residency of a consul while consul is an official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation. In the Roman Republic, military command, or imperium, could be exercised constitutionally only by a consul. Since this is no longer the case, specific terminology is required to describe such officials. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. They governed the provinces of: Asia, comprising the central part of the western Anatolian coast; Achaea, comprising the Peloponnese and most of Central Greece; and Africa, the northern part of modern Tunisia. The others were the praetor and the propraetor. This extension applied only outside the city walls of Rome. No one is trained as a proconsul and the available administrators have experience in at most one relevant agency or service. Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. Proconsul is therefore "ancestral to the Chimpanzee" in Hopwood's words. [18], As the number of Roman legions was increased, there was a need to increase the number of military commanders. It is optional but the only way to have more than 2 generals before Scipio comes out. [13] Another factor is that civilian policymakers, whether on the spot or in the metropole, may lack the skills needed to manage military forces. [3] Ancient historians describe Quintus Publilius Philo, the first proconsul, as prō consule for 326 BC. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. They were also given imperium so that they could also command an army. After this, no praetors were added even when the number of provinces increased. Le terme est également utilisé dans l' histoire récente pour les fonctionnaires ayant les pouvoirs délégués. Julius Caesar, as proconsul, waged military campaigns in Gaul. Définitions de proconsul. • Socrate, historien ecclésiastique, raconte que Constance, ayant supprimé l'office de proconsul, établit Honorat préfet ou gouverneur de Constantinople ( BOUCHAUD Instit. The province of Sicily was created in 241 BC, while Corsica and Sardinia was created in 238 BC. In 291 BC Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges had his command extended and to carry out mop up operations towards the end of the war. J.-C. se tient le premier procès connu intenté à un proconsul pour ses extorsions perpétrées en Espagne. Democracies put the military under civilian authority and tend to avoid policymaking by military leaders. But as email and Power Point presentations proliferate, clarity and intellectual discipline is lost. Rome didn’t have a specific term for ‘provincial governor;’ instead, someone would be given authority to govern a province for a specific term. From the mid-4th century bc the Romans recognized the necessity, during lengthy wars, of extending the terms of certain magistrates; such extension was termed prorogatio. Proconsul Nature : s. m. Prononciation : pro-kon-sul Etymologie : Lat. "[15], The position was created to deal with a constitutional peculiarity of the Roman Republic. [24], The provinces were divided between imperial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the emperor, and senatorial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the senate. This custom allowed for continuity of command despite the high turnover of consuls. See Wiktionary Terms of Use for details. The rise of bureaucracy and rapid communication has reduced the scope for proconsular freelancing. A consul held imperium, had control of the army, and, following the end of his term in office, could look forward to governing a province as proconsul -- a position that tended to be lucrative. Having held the Republic's highest office, he was a statesman as well as an administrator. Dans la République romaine, commandement militaire ou Imperium, pourrait être exercé par la Constitution que par un consul. There wasn't subordinance between consul and proconsul, they both had almost equal … [25], The more important provinces, which could not with ease or safety be entrusted to the government of annual magistrates, [Augustus] reserved for his own administration: the rest he distributed by lot amongst the proconsuls; but sometimes he made exchanges, and frequently visited most of both kinds in person. À Rome, consul sortant dont les pouvoirs étaient prolongés d'un an pour poursuivre une campagne militaire en cours ou pour gouverner une province. The position of propraetor was instituted. In 227 BC, two praetors were assigned the administration of these two provinces. Littéraire. La fonction de proconsul dans la Rome antique correspond à la notion actuelle de gouverneur. (Proconsul denotes the person had been consul.) Tous les cinq ans, les anciens consuls peuvent être élus comme censeurs, par les comices centuriates. A proconsul was typically a former consul. Only a consul could command an army, but the high turnover of consuls could disrupt continuity of command. 869 Related Articles [filter] Roman Empire. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. Définitions de consul. Ancien consul qui, en sortant de charge, recevait le commandement d'une province ou d'une armée. [11] As ruler of Japan and Korea after World War II, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur consciously modeled himself on a Roman aristocrat. "Before Consul," as the Greek name translates, may not seem very dignified for such a remote human … romaine,t.2, 1831, p.56). À leur retour à Rome, les consuls et les proconsuls commencent à devoir rendre des comptes [14] : en 171 av. La province qui leur était attribuée était tirée au sort lors de leur élection. In the modern context, it is rarely a compliment. 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