[1982]. Practical toxicology of plastics. The fluorescence intensity was stronger at 24 hours compared to the 2- and 4-hour incubated groups. Both PS and PDLLA, or their derivatives, have been widely used for biomedical applications, including drug delivery systems.8,18–20 In our previous reports, NPs based on biocompatible polymers were prepared and exhibited improved systemic exposure of the drug, in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, and cancer diagnosis.4,21–23 As a new polymer for drug delivery, PS-PDLLA was used for the fabrication of NPs to deliver DCT. DiI, as a hydrophobic fluorescent dye, was incorporated into the nanovesicles instead of DCT for monitoring the intracellular movement of NPs for 24 hours in PC-3 cells. [1963]. Pathways of DNA adduct formation by bioactivation of NPYR and styrene are illustrated in Scheme 2, and were confirmed in this work by LC-MS using polyion/microsomes nanoreactors. The dissolution medium (10 mL), PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80, was agitated at 50 rpm using a shaking bath at 37°C. 99 Get it as soon as Tue, Jan 5 It was expected that the ester linkage in the PDLLA backbone could be degraded via esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis in biological fluids.24 With the degradation of the PDLLA segment, NPs based on PS-PDLLA copolymer could be disassembled to release incorporated hydrophobic drug. Cutting Score polystyrene sheets with a sharp razor knife on one side and break the sheet on the scored line. In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of DCT in rats after intravenous injection at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Styrene's potential impact on aquatic and soil environments is significantly mitigated by … Cedervall T, Lynch I, Lindman S, et al. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 250±5 g, were purchased from Orient Bio Inc. (Sungnam, Korea) to study in vivo pharmacokinetics. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and anti-cancer efficacy studies of a docetaxel-carboxymethylcellulose nanoparticle in mouse models. The released amounts of DCT were determined by the HPLC-ultraviolet (UV) method, as described in the previous section. Using TEM and SAXS, microdomain structures of cylinders of poly (styrene), cylinders of poly (isoprene-LC) as … Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. The styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) is a kind of thermoplastic elastomer which has the same elasticity with the rubber in normal temperature, and can be melt … Spherical shape and similar particle size, compared to the hydrodynamic size (Table 1), of NPs are shown in FE-SEM images (Figure 2B). Theranostic liposomes of TPGS coating for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and quantum dots. EE(%)=actual amount of drug in NPsinput amount of drug in NPs×100. Cho HJ, Yoon HY, Koo H, et al. Notes: Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France) or PS-PDLLA/DCT (10:1) NPs were intravenously administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. 6. Effects of particle size and surface modification on cellular uptake and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery. The retention times of DCT and PTX were 4.8 and 4.9 minutes, respectively. 1College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan, Republic of Korea, 3College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; DW, distilled water; FE-SEM, field emission-scanning electron microscope; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SEI, secondary electron imaging; WD, working distance. Cellular uptake of PS-PDLLA NPs in PC-3 cells. You may notice problems with Styrene is metabolized to styrene oxide, which forms up to 11 covalent adducts with guanine and adenine bases of DNA that disrupt the double helix [29 – 31]. Docetaxel microemulsion for enhanced oral bioavailability: preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Styrene (/ˈstʌɪriːn/) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2. Cementing Unlike wood or other materials, polystyrene parts are joined by bonding with a … Styrene plastic is a popular choice for picture framing because the material is lightweight, resistant to shattering, and affordable. In vitro cytotoxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; EE, encapsulation efficiency; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. 2 b). Larson N, Greish K, Bauer H, Maeda H, Ghandehari H. Synthesis and evaluation of poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) micellar nanocarriers for the delivery of tanespimycin. Aliquots (50 μL) of the plasma samples were spiked with PTX as an internal standard in acetonitrile (10 μL volume, 1 μg/mL concentration), and mixed with acetonitrile (90 μL) for deproteinization. Numerous NPs based on each copolymer component (PS or PDLLA) were fabricated and their characteristics, including toxicity, were investigated.27,31 It was reported that the cytotoxicity of PS NPs was influenced by the functional group attached on the surface of the NPs, the particle size, and the presence of enzymes or serum.37 PDLLA has been used as a biocompatible polymer, alone or in a conjugated form, for drug delivery and tissue engineering.38,39 Nonetheless, the in vivo toxicity of PS-PDLLA NPs has not been previously investigated. Vinyl is crushed plastic biscuits and heated into a flat record, including the label. Photoswitchable nanoparticles for in vivo cancer chemotherapy. As shown in Table 3, clearance (CL) of the Taxotere-treated group was lower than that of the PS-PDLLA/DCT (10:1) group (P<0.05). NPs were mounted on stubs and coated with Pt under vacuum. PC-3 cells (1.0×104 cells/well) were seeded in 96-well plates, and treated and incubated with freeze-dried blank PS-PDLLA NPs reconstituted with cell culture medium over a wide range of concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 37°C. Nanovehicles, known to produce sufficient aqueous solubility, sustained release, and tumor targeting of anticancer drugs, have been developed based on diverse materials as one of these injectable formulations. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed the characteristics of the PS-PDLLA copolymer when compared with reference (Figure 1).24–26 The 1H-NMR spectrum of the PS-PDLLA copolymer (Figure 1B) showed the peaks for phenyl protons of styrene and protons of lactide (–CO–CH[CH3]–O–) at 7.3 ppm and 5.2 ppm, respectively. Jin YJ, Termsarasab U, Ko SH, et al. Hearing loss has been observed in animals exposed to very high concentrations of styrene. Various nanovehicles, such as liposomes, NPs, and micelles, have been developed and evaluated for DCT delivery to improve delivery efficiency and attenuate unwanted effects.14–16. Glioma therapy using tumor homing and penetrating peptide-functionalized PEG-PLA nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel. Search results for styreneb13c1051498765 at Sigma-Aldrich. Ren J, Zhao P, Ren T, Gu S, Pan K. Poly(D,L-lactide)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and biocompatibility evaluation. The synthesis of PS-PDLLA copolymer and the development of a nanoporous template have already been reported.11,12 In this study, the feasibility of PS-PDLLA for NP fabrication and its application to anticancer drug delivery are discussed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; MTS, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. Muthu MS, Kulkarni SA, Raju A, Feng SS. After removing the cell culture media, Taxotere and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs were added (1, 10, and 100 nM DCT) and incubated for 48 and 72 hours at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator with 95% relative humidity. Notes: PC-3 cell viability (%) after 24, 48, and 72 hours was measured using an MTS-based assay. Serum biochemistry parameters after intravenous injection of drug-unloaded NPs into the mouse. We chose styrene, 4-fluorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene and 4-bromostyrene for our structure-toxicity relationship study and found that 4-bromostyrene was the most toxic to CYP2E1 cells, followed by 4-chlorostyrene and 4-fluorostyrene. Blood samples (−300 μL) were collected from the femoral artery at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 minutes after injection, followed by replenishment with a 0.9% sodium chloride injectable solution containing heparin (20 U/mL) at each time point to prevent blood clotting. DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method with slight modification.17 Briefly, DCT and PS-PDLLA (4:20 and 4:40, mg, weight per weight [w/w]) were dissolved in 2 mL of DCM, and added to 20 mL of PVA solution (2%, weight per volume [w/v]). You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. The LC. The particle size of the NPs was adequately maintained in serum and a sustained drug release pattern was observed. Paclitaxel (PTX) was purchased from Samyang Genex Corporation (Daejeon, Korea). In vitro anti-tumor efficacy in PC-3 cells. Understanding and controlling the morphology of styrene–isoprene side-group liquid crystalline diblock copolymers C.O. Lee SY, Kim S, Tyler JY, Park K, Cheng JX. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK [1982]. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 106. The NPs suspensions were eliminated by washing with PBS (pH 7.4) three times. The centrifuging and resuspending processes were repeated three times to remove PVA. Hyaluronic acid-ceramide-based optical/MR dual imaging nanoprobe for cancer diagnosis. Xiao Z, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Alexis F, et al. The optimized gas temperature, gas flow, nebulizer pressure, and capillary voltage were 350°C, 10 L per minute, 30 psi, and 6,000 V, respectively. Thermotherapy using magnetic cationic liposomes powerfully suppresses prostate cancer bone metastasis in a novel rat model. 4. A 200 μL aliquot of the medium was collected at fixed times (3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 hours), and an equivalent volume of fresh media was replenished at each time point. AUC, t1/2, and MRT values of the PS-PDLLA/DCT group were 2.31-, 2.33-, and 4.16-fold higher than those of the Taxotere group, respectively (P<0.05). PC-3 cells were seeded on 96-well plates at a density of 1.0×104/well and incubated overnight. The analytical data were processed using the MassHunter Workstation Software Quantitative Analysis (vB.05.00; Agilent Technologies). Decreased in vivo drug clearance, elevated systemic exposure, and prolonged circulation of the drug were verified in a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Tiunov LA, Zhuvov VG, et al. Polymerization becomes self … Abbreviations: FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide). Combination delivery of TGF-β inhibitor and IL-2 by nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels enhances tumour immunotherapy. Human exposure to styrene vapor. Ernsting MJ, Tang WL, MacCallum NW, Li SD. Notes: Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France) and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs at 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM DCT were incubated for (A) 48 and (B) 72 hours. PC-3 cells were seeded in four-chamber culture slides (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) at a density of 1.0×105 cells/well and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Owens DE, 3rd, Peppas NA. 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