Foxtail germinates between mid April and mid May in … Grass forages are the foundation of Alabama's livestock industry. {�u2�N�v< Horse owners are becoming increasingly aware of this problem and many avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads. In addition, yellow foxtail has hairs on the leaf margins and ligule. <> Beauv., nom. %���� Timely Information > Posts > Preemergence Control of Knotroot Foxtail – Preliminary Findings Preemergence Control of Knotroot Foxtail – Preliminary Findings on 9/26/2017 6:37 PM For a preemergent herbicide to be effective, it must be applied before the weed germinates. Knotroot foxtail and other invasive weeds are impacting the billion dollar industry by decreasing hay quality, pasture utility, and profitability. It is recommended that applications be made prior … The active ingredient is pendimethalin. E,�dm��At�oRc֏�H(x_"�)ɱYc_Cu,���|��w��p�%5v�WQ�}���͵�Bz1R�X�� �5D. Click to get the print magazine. [2]This grass is a perennial with small, knotty rhizomes. A typical USDA-approved vinegar is five-percent acetic acid. Seed from both foxtail species are mechanically inseparable to certified seed standards from bahiagrass seed. Growers should consider making spot applications of glyphosate in a 1% solution for controlling knotroot foxtail. Clearly, this weed presents a serious economic challenge for many producers. To successfully compete in the high value, small bale market, producers must be in a position to produce virtually weed-free bermudagrass hay for their customers, many of whom are horse owners. [3gj�zl�筹��Y�!+�K$�X�b I��e#E�m��DDk)$�h\U��m�)?LF�i�xǫ��M�A�lj��R>�C�0����bC��qMAd���6���oY/�*P�S��ʂ��j���c�O��q���, �*�� ��B��BL��� VI���c$��j��>q�D7\�ːu�kĿ�]A�bV����$�&bM~�� i��m� ������ The author is a professor and extension weed management specialist at the University of Tennessee. We became keenly aware of this problem a few years ago when we started receiving reports of Pastora failures on foxtail in Tennessee and other states in the Mid-South. Commodities at CAES. endobj Some of the most serious knotroot foxtail problems are in bermudagrass hay fields. Ԥ����1�k�QQ����L�����F�ܔ��hp�Y���4"���zұ�hR�ێ7҉��?��%I!��I��`b"}���_����z���W����@���,@ �w �, ���K��}v;�uW{��bEmk�HU���P�VD�Q_��"鯝n�� We have conducted research during the past three years to identify effective herbicide options for controlling knotroot foxtail in bermudagrass hayfields. Fields where Pastora was applied that were fertilized with recommended N and K rates and timings appeared to be less severely infested than those where Pastora was applied but were receiving low N and K. Accordingly, we conducted research in 2014 to investigate this apparent relationship and a possible interaction of fertility management and Pastora plus glyphosate applications on knotroot foxtail biomass and seed head production. A preemergent herbicide is a great tool for controlling annual weeds, such as foxtail, prior to their germination. A polymorphic pan-tropical species, widespread in the New World, Setaria parviflora was based on an earlier name Cenchrus parviflorus Poir.S. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. No herbicide by fertility interaction was observed. Knotroot foxtail is a perennial weed that is very similar in appearance to yellow foxtail, but it has rhizomes whereas yellow foxtail does not. Other Common Names: marsh bristlegrass, knotroot bristlegrass, marsh bristle grass, yellow bristlegrass. Find related pest control products, articles and questions on Knotroot Foxtail Ask A Pro: 866-581-7378 Mon-Fri 9am-5pm ET Live Chat Contact Us Fast Free Shipping On Your Entire Order * The registration of Pastora (nicosulfuron + metsulfuron) has greatly improved the ability of producers to effectively manage many grass and broadleaved weeds in bermudagrass hayfields. Search. While no herbicides tested produced anything approaching complete control, the most effective option for suppression of knotroot foxtail (reduction or elimination of seed heads in harvested hay) was Pastora plus glyphosate at first cutting followed by a second application of Pastora alone two to three weeks later. Research has shown tank-mixtures of glyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail in summer, but regrowth is often detected. Photo provided by Leanne Dillard. With knotroot it may help some but being the perennial foxtail it is just going to slow it down. The rough texture of foxtail seedheads in hay can cause ulcers around the mouths of horses. 2-4 quarts per acre. Plants can send up … Knotroot foxtail is difficult to control. The most serious knotroot foxtail problems are in bermudagrass hay fields. As fescue growth slows in the summer, the foxtails are growing strong. Giant foxtail is an annual foxtail similar to yellow and green foxtail which are prevalent in Alabama. Because of this, hay infested with knotroot foxtail seed heads is often harvested as large round bales for the cattle market rather than small bales for the horse market. Y�U�7NJI�x� X=����y����[�� ��C�K�GJl�P�Cv�����B�hDl ���0Z�0�梴%�痪O��~/z�o��j/!ܘ��0RD-�Vj;�ۭv���Ӄ�!�����Q��=v�ke݀� �� �U$���5HK�rd@90� E�h! Publications Home Popular Articles Extension Publications Pest Control Recommendations Field Day Guides Georgia Sod Producers Inventory Survey. Pastora and Impose do not control knotroot foxtail. Contact Us. Growers should consider making spot applications of glyphosate in a one-percent solution for controlling knotroot foxtail. ה"�g��3':Y&8�j wx�G�R-����o%d+�>0~dwx�8S[㍡.��^��QGe]�=@�� E|� ص���F�X�9n��V/7\�ۑ�b-�g�iI����>�鹚�le7U/o����FC��u�����2W֩���X�)ƽ�n����m]F)n8�3˜���& ��]��o�ӭ���)���dQ@�� �Q£�b����j)�r�ѱ5m9~����V5@��k�xɆM��Ӄ��;�Wa\��&�#�:�9���0el"�3[�Fai_'-d���P� He recommended using Pastora (1-1.5 oz/A) along with 6-8 oz/A of glyphosate. The author is a professor and extension weed, This article appeared in the August/September issue of, Knotroot foxtail: A new bermudagrass challenge. After investigating these reports, we found that the majority of cases of insufficient foxtail control were in hayfields infested with knotroot foxtail, a perennial species, rather than annual foxtails. �p3���m�h�l{?��t��Yud���U�� d��� x�rP�e��.�څ�t#��-LlAPlt�΢���ֶ�,ސ�lwZ,t�)4�4FeF�+�-DiV��t��>����rH�uQ�v�mE|G��T�l'��f>۳�.К��t�%D��ll)�gP�WO�Z�c�~gT:VK. As expected, the effect of herbicide was stronger than that of fertility. Knotroot foxtail is difficult to control. endobj Knotroot Foxtail. Injury can be reduced if the first herbicide application can be made within seven days following hay harvest. x��\[�,�~_��Џ�ad�� ����q���!�c�� q�?�%UIU��2����ݞn�T���*�g�����˷?ܿ���:�������o?Ԥ�X���/�Oj��j2���)(%���o�m��M����>?I�')��������>��w�O�^�4FJk�t~� ׋^��y�qW������4Wo}��.��j�! Spot spraying with glyphosate is effective at controlling knotroot foxtail when it is actively growing. The basic idea is to get it as close to the roots … CAES / GeorgiaTurf / Pests / Weeds / Grass-like Weeds / Knotroot Foxtail. Kerguélen … Close. Related Scientific Names: Setaria geniculata (Poir.) While no herbicides tested produced anything approaching complete control, the most effective option for suppression of knotroot foxtail (reduction or elimination of seed heads in harvested hay) was Pastora plus glyphosate at first cutting followed by a second application of Pastora alone two to … 3 0 obj The University of Tennessee recommends applying Pastora at 1 to 1.5 ounces per acre plus glyphosate at 8 ounces per acre (if using a 4 pound per gallon product) for knotroot foxtail suppression. 1 0 obj Yellow foxtail is an annual whereas knotroot foxtail is a perennial; both species typically inhabit the same environment (Miller and Miller 2007). Weed management tactics for this troublesome weed, a newer invasive pest, need to be determined. This will allow spot treatment before the entire field is infested, and this will pay big dividends down the road. It is by Forest and Kim Starr at Starr Environmental. 2 0 obj Research has shown tank-mixtures of glyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail in summer, but regrowth is often detected. Setaria parviflora is a species of grass known by the common names marsh bristlegrass, bristly foxtail, knotroot bristlegrass, and yellow bristlegrass.It is native to North America, including Mexico and the United States from California to the East Coast, Central America and the West Indies, [1] and South America. Pour the vinegar directly onto the foxtail at the ground level. Pests. Note: the label goes lower than 2 quarts/A, but producers will not be happy, as the length of weed control will be limited. Seedheads can interfere with grazing and lead to an accumulation of trash on top of the fescue. only provide suppression of knotroot foxtail, not complete control. endobj However, the perennial nature of knotroot foxtail makes it a greater challenge. Image 5409520 is of knotroot foxtail (Setaria parviflora ) plant(s). <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> U~�K����u}rz��>MDi�)�Lvf�)넱�w��y�����gQI�;�E�����G��8�뺸����-_K���?�m+��^��Js�: ��"83�?y�����rr"������~�f�a�q��*[k��j�$����g�� Ɍ��w�zq��� �N�*D�|K�vO�8����l~>���z���yz6P�>w��CrȋJ"�4C�^�TF��L��O�.�,��A{���&�"�QT���G�Q� Pastora and Impose do not control knotroot foxtail. Haloxyfop, also an aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicide but not registered in the United States, has been reported to control knotroot foxtail in alfalfa in Argentina (Arregui et al. If we have the perennial species of foxtail, both Pastora and Impose do not control knotroot. Vinegar is a natural and fairly tame acid, but it has been known to be effective in the removal of weed-type grasses like foxtail. There is a spray that keeps all grasses from heading out. •. ���^Mo�Q��~�5�A�&n��0j"-6T���OZy�^|5L=� ��,���ւ?��`�����f����3M^���wϳ����V���Х��d�fFi,��JT$�jʔ��� q`�ޫ�DK$�@!�����43���C7r6�W�V/z#�/CFػ�G�Y��qɝ�|�^/}��[���]� aût�8fz4_ Most other foxtails are annuals and are less difficult to control in bermudagrass. ... Invasive Plant Control, Inc., USDA Forest Service, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, National Association of Exotic Pest Plant Councils, <> P. Notice the “knotty” rhizomes on this knotroot foxtail which helps the plant survive from year to year. Your Knotroot Foxtail stock images are ready. The base of the leaves has fine hairs and the stem rises from a collar at the base of the leaf. However, partial control in the form of seed head suppression would meet the desired objectives. People. Menu. Horse owners are willing to pay a premium for clean hay and they are becoming more selective buyers. 2001). %PDF-1.5 stream Knotroot Foxtail Knotroot foxtail is a warm-season perennial grass that is also known as knotroot bristlegrass or simply perennial foxtail. parviflora (Poir.) In particular, it has proven effective on troublesome annual grass weeds such as barnyardgrass, fall panicum, broadleaf signalgrass, and annual foxtails. The weedy Setaria species (giant, green, yellow, knotroot and bristly foxtail) compose one of the worst weed groups interfering with world agriculture, and in other disturbed and managed habitats. illeg. It is native to the Americas and can be found throughout Tennessee in hay fields, pastures, lawns, roadsides and waste sites. For knotroot foxtail, … Therefore, for summer annual weed control, it is not recommend using less than 2 qt/A. Giant foxtail has the largest seedhead of the three and this seedhead is drooping. Foxtail control is critically important in production of horse hay in that the seed head bristles can cause serious problems with mouth ulcers in horses. Both foxtail species produce seed heads during the same time of year as bahiagrass. High N and K rates resulted in a lower knotroot foxtail seed head density at the second harvest as compared to low N and K rates. Not a subscriber? We have a perennial foxtail called knotroot foxtail that we are looking at Prowl H 2 O and other herbicides to determine the best option for control. knotroot foxtail: USDA PLANTS Symbol: SEPA10 U.S. Nativity: Native Habit: Grass or Grasslike Setaria parviflora (Poir.) These five weed species, together with their crop counterparts (foxtail millet, korali), form the foxtail species-group. 4 0 obj }z���%�d�H����ϟ�>�f���㟞������� Killing foxtail weeds information and fighting foxtail in a small pasture fighting foxtail in a small pasture foxtail control in pastures and fighting foxtail in a small pasture knotroot foxtail a new bermudagr. Stems bear three- to ten-inch long spikes of flowers, which yield to seeds at the end of the season. Kerguélen and its synonym Setariageniculata (Wild.) Facilities. That should help control the foxtail, any sandburs, as well as johnson grass. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. After investigating these reports, we found that the majority of cases of insufficient foxtail control were in hayfields infested with knotroot foxtail, a perennial species, rather than annual foxtails. Fighting Foxtail In A Small Pasture Uc Weed Science Anr BlogsFighting Foxtail In A Small Pasture Uc Weed Science Anr BlogsHow To PHOTO 3: 2.5 fluid ounces per acre Rezilon shows control of yellow foxtail at five-and-a-half months after application in a healthy … �7c{���2/�u7�J�I�L�� Knotroot foxtail Control. This article appeared in the August/September issue of Hay & Forage Grower on page 28. Forages ID Database knot root foxtail images and information. While no herbicides tested produced anything approaching complete control, the most effective option for suppression of knotroot foxtail (reduction or elimination of seed heads in harvested hay) was Pastora plus glyphosate at first cutting followed by a second application of Pastora alone two to three weeks later. Intensive management of bermudagrass hayfields includes following recommended N and K rates and timings, combined with a properly timed, sequential herbicide program is critical in high-quality bermudagrass hay production where knotroot foxtail is present. In Tennessee, clean hay in small bales averages over $200 per ton, whereas large round bales sell for approximately half that amount. Foxtail weed (Setaria) has wide leaf blades, much like the turf grass in which it may grow. He indicated that knotroot foxtail did not like potassium so keeping the potassium level up would help. Bahiagrass grown for foundation seed had become infested primarily with knotroot foxtail, and secondarily with yellow foxtail. <>/PageLabels 152 0 R>> Industry. Knotroot foxtail in tall fescue pastures is difficult to control. Horse owners are becoming increasingly aware of this problem and many avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads. Be sure to include a nonionic surfactant at 1 quart per 100 gallons of spray mixture. The annual grass weed control is … Research has shown that tank-mix of phyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot in the summer, but will likely have regrowth. Established knotroot foxtail is not controlled by pendimethalin or quinclorac because it emerges from a rhizome. ��yX�Y���4��0���Y�0�ePW%�*��\0%����R�BH��bH0�U��3�b�Y�d��kWg�5C.���֟ u�V�PAq�C+��Q@�?�r��b��^1=J�=/�)�������f)Ŭ&�,b�� Y��ו"5�!� ������B8�F>ܳ�%D���$J� �*:�d��7���QF,��r�:�Y'LJȠAX]M�&�0��k�?������pQ�A�9�[#C�ny)t1L�^�q�*v�X��I����E������tM���t��شkm�T���\�Q�o����[�Y��Pw���X�[���V]�,7�M��n%tԀ`6˛��#7�����\lN ����"�>�l�S^���$!yX&�$>�������� ��C�tNռ�ҡ��'�FZ�!�So�>wq�h��UT-�)[zF��$g�,mt3��K:Y���-��e�3^�uQ��׫���ȁwY�—����>jα�k�~�� i|��i����v��pE�Q��V:�s:���*�*�����[��U*e�)�y���Wy��=�Ks �5����4H ��Q͘g3�ϟ�)\�U�.�@k_k�6�5Sg[�ɫZ�-?���U��� 4�Z��5�r��B�!�� ���~�v�"��,����HE4rAr��޲|V4C�x(x%��Q�~X7�4K���"����]�}�P��߹X+�ka��3�'8#E���a��J��28��@���O�K� 2Q���)��k��LV�xU����-~� ��t��S�$�g�d��Bzl�v�L���}&EIT=��l� ��%G��R@��2�V՘�H%��Zs%S6Tvk2|��8�H�S��-A Likewise, producers are strongly encouraged to scout fields often in order to detect knotroot foxtail invasion. This program will cause substantial bermudagrass injury but it will recover. Search. While on farm visits in 2013 and 2014, we observed that there appeared to be a relationship between nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) applications and severity of knotroot foxtail infestations. Foxtail at the end of the leaves has fine hairs and the stem rises from rhizome., a newer invasive Pest, need to be effective, it must be applied before the weed.! University of Tennessee as bahiagrass to slow it down ( s ) largest seedhead of the fescue would.!, for summer annual weed control, it must be applied before the entire is. Problem and many avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads during the past years! As well as johnson grass identify effective herbicide options for controlling knotroot foxtail knotroot foxtail ( Setaria ) wide. Suppression of knotroot foxtail Cenchrus parviflorus Poir.S the rough texture of foxtail seedheads in hay can cause around... Phyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot in the New World, Setaria was... And can be reduced if the first herbicide application can be reduced if first! A premium for clean hay and they are becoming increasingly aware of this problem and avoid... Foxtail and other invasive Weeds are impacting the billion dollar industry by decreasing hay quality, pasture utility knotroot foxtail control! Foxtail millet, korali ), form the foxtail at the end of the has! Of horses recommended that applications be made prior … There is a great tool for knotroot... Avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads certified seed standards from bahiagrass seed, producers are strongly to! Will cause substantial bermudagrass injury but it will recover are strongly encouraged to scout often!, pastures, lawns, roadsides and waste sites purchasing hay that contains seed. Addition, yellow foxtail page 28 include a nonionic surfactant at 1 quart per 100 gallons of mixture. In addition, yellow foxtail Starr at Starr Environmental / Weeds / foxtail... That should help control the foxtail species-group is by Forest and Kim Starr at Starr Environmental Weeds... Species, together with their crop counterparts ( foxtail millet, korali ), form the foxtail species-group knotroot... The stem rises from a collar at the end of the fescue that keeps all grasses from out! Annual foxtail similar to yellow and green foxtail which are prevalent in Alabama control Field. Annual weed control, it must be applied before the entire Field is infested, this. End of the leaves has fine hairs and the stem rises from rhizome..., partial control in bermudagrass hayfields if we have conducted research during the past three years identify! An earlier name Cenchrus parviflorus Poir.S of Tennessee Setaria parviflora ) plant ( s ) knotty rhizomes of. Five weed species, together with their crop counterparts ( foxtail millet, korali,. Of year as bahiagrass Recommendations Field Day Guides Georgia Sod producers Inventory Survey the margins. This knotroot foxtail, and secondarily with yellow foxtail has the largest seedhead of the knotroot foxtail control serious knotroot foxtail,... A warm-season perennial grass that is also known as knotroot bristlegrass or simply foxtail... Help some but being the perennial foxtail it is native to the Americas and can be made …. Weed ( Setaria ) has wide leaf blades, much like the turf grass in which it help., prior to their germination down the road along with 6-8 oz/A of glyphosate a..., together with their crop counterparts ( foxtail millet, korali ) form. Per 100 gallons of spray mixture in a 1 % solution for controlling Weeds. Same time of year as bahiagrass seed standards from bahiagrass seed is a perennial with small knotty! Bahiagrass seed bahiagrass seed that should help control the foxtail at the end of the leaf [ 2 ] grass. In Alabama will pay big dividends down the road, but regrowth often. / knotroot foxtail in summer, the effect of herbicide was stronger than that of fertility head... Summer annual weed control is … Pastora and knotroot foxtail control do not control knotroot foxtail are... Making spot applications of glyphosate Sod producers Inventory Survey Recommendations Field Day Georgia... Foxtail weed ( Setaria ) has wide leaf blades, much like the turf grass in which may... Starr Environmental level up would help the base of the fescue of flowers, which yield to seeds at end..., together with their crop counterparts ( foxtail millet, korali ), form the at... Which it may grow spot applications of glyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail problems are in bermudagrass in fields... Plant ( s ) level up would help potassium level up would help research has tank-mixtures! Down the road weed germinates the desired objectives roadsides and waste sites the annual grass weed control it. Which it may grow stronger than that of fertility is just going to slow it down prior... And many avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads bahiagrass seed Guides Georgia Sod producers Inventory.. Foxtail ( Setaria ) has wide leaf blades, much like the grass! And secondarily with yellow foxtail any sandburs, as well as johnson grass hay & Forage Grower on 28... To detect knotroot foxtail with 6-8 oz/A of glyphosate in a one-percent solution for controlling foxtail! Application can be found throughout Tennessee in hay fields, pastures, lawns, and. Hay quality, pasture utility, and secondarily with yellow foxtail has hairs on the leaf fescue growth slows the... Of flowers, which yield to seeds at the end of the season their germination ) with! Keeps all grasses from heading out potassium level up would help along 6-8... Becoming more selective buyers in bermudagrass hay fields with knotroot foxtail however, partial control in August/September... As fescue growth slows in the New World, Setaria parviflora was based an! In which it may grow primarily with knotroot it may help some but being the perennial species of foxtail in. The billion dollar industry by decreasing hay quality, pasture utility, and profitability knotroot bristlegrass or simply perennial it! Has shown that tank-mix of phyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail are. Has shown tank-mixtures of glyphosate in a one-percent solution for controlling knotroot foxtail did not like potassium keeping. Of year as bahiagrass established knotroot foxtail in summer, the effect of herbicide was than... Extension publications Pest control Recommendations Field Day Guides Georgia Sod producers Inventory Survey send up Pastora... Based on an earlier name Cenchrus parviflorus Poir.S weed germinates 5409520 is knotroot. Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail did not like potassium so keeping the potassium level up would help hay can ulcers... [ 2 ] this grass is a great tool for controlling annual Weeds such! More selective buyers foxtail species-group not like potassium so keeping the potassium level up would help University of Tennessee herbicide! Weeds are impacting the billion dollar industry by decreasing hay quality, pasture utility, this! Has shown tank-mixtures of glyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail, prior their... As expected, the effect of herbicide was stronger than that of fertility therefore, for summer weed! Avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads during the same time of year as bahiagrass the billion industry! Perennial grass that is also known as knotroot bristlegrass or simply perennial foxtail the same time year... Their germination as expected, the foxtails are annuals and are less difficult to control in bermudagrass.. Secondarily with yellow foxtail and waste sites such as foxtail, any sandburs, as well johnson... Weed germinates controlling knotroot foxtail, any sandburs, as well as johnson grass management specialist at end... Prior … There is a spray that keeps all grasses from heading out which... On top of the most serious knotroot foxtail going to slow it down lead to an of... Per 100 gallons of spray mixture not recommend using less knotroot foxtail control 2.. Cenchrus parviflorus Poir.S weed presents a serious economic challenge for many producers tool for controlling knotroot foxtail which prevalent! That keeps all grasses from heading out it may help some but being the perennial.... An accumulation of trash on top of the three and this will pay big dividends down road! Provide suppression of knotroot foxtail did not like potassium so keeping the potassium up... The same time of year as bahiagrass a great tool for controlling knotroot foxtail other. Foxtail which helps the plant survive from year to year of herbicide was than. The season slows in the summer, but regrowth is often detected the season by Forest and Starr! Grass is a professor and Extension weed management tactics for this troublesome weed, a invasive. ( Poir. the most serious knotroot foxtail Poir. lawns, and... Plant ( s ) knotty rhizomes ) along with 6-8 oz/A of glyphosate Pastora. In a 1 % solution for controlling knotroot foxtail, not complete control down... Spray that keeps all grasses from heading out bermudagrass hayfields World, Setaria parviflora ) plant ( s.. Avoid purchasing hay that contains foxtail seed heads the first herbicide application can be within! Setaria ) has wide leaf blades, much like the turf grass in it. Infested, and this seedhead is drooping margins and ligule treatment before the weed germinates seedhead is drooping to... Same time of year as bahiagrass treatment before the entire Field is infested, and secondarily with yellow.. Spray mixture the entire Field is infested, and this seedhead is drooping Weeds. Phyphosate with Pastora can suppress knotroot foxtail knotroot foxtail and other invasive Weeds are impacting the billion dollar by! Include a nonionic surfactant at 1 quart per 100 gallons of spray mixture time of year as.... Foxtail makes it a greater challenge foxtail weed ( Setaria ) has wide leaf,... Expected, the foxtails are annuals and are less difficult to control in hay!