Most VOCs in earth's atmosphere are biogenic, largely emitted by plants.[1]. These regulations have prompted several companies in the paint and adhesive industries to adapt with VOC level reductions their products. Dementsprechend sind Angaben zur Emission von VOCs eigentlich nur dann bewertbar, wenn zusätzlich zu der Angabe auch die verwendete Definition genannt wird. Paints, varnishes and wax all contain organic solvents, as d… [40], Some VOCs, such as styrene and limonene, can react with nitrogen oxides or with ozone to produce new oxidation products and secondary aerosols, which can cause sensory irritation symptoms. Am häufigsten davon betroffen sind Menschen, die zum Beispiel aufgrund einer bestimmten Erkrankung besonders sensibel auf flüchtige Chemikalien reagieren. Chronic, … High vapor pressure correlates with a low boiling points, which relates to numbers of the sample's molecules in the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility.[1]. Ultra-low-VOC products have VOC content that's below 50 g/L. Oktober 2002), Richtlinie 99/13/EG … vom 11. Die Symptome wie Kopfschmerzen, Überempfindlichkeitsreaktionen, Müdigkeit, Leistungsminderung, Schlafstörungen und Reizungen der Atemwege werden unter dem Begriff „Sick-Building-Syndrom“ zusammengefasst. Auch in der Fahrzeugindustrie gibt es für Emissionen von Kohlenwasserstoffen Grenzwerte, die dort allgemein als HC-Emissionen bezeichnet werden. Use non-toxic flooring like Easiklip to easily install healthy hardwood yourself. Prominent is the VOC regulation issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California and by the California Air Resources Board (ARB). [30], VOC concentration in an indoor environment during winter is three to four times higher than the VOC concentrations during the summer. Einige Definitionen beinhalten tatsächlich Angaben zum Dampfdruck, andere, in der Regel neuere Definitionen, definieren VOC über ihre photochemische Reaktivität als sog. [45], The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly from those that are highly toxic, to those with no known health effects. Vorläufersubstanzen für die Bildung von bodennahem Ozon. [6][7], The People's Republic of China defines a VOC as those compounds that have "originated from automobiles, industrial production and civilian use, burning of all types of fuels, storage and transportation of oils, fitment finish, coating for furniture and machines, cooking oil fume and fine particles (PM 2.5)," and similar sources. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are a combination of gases and odors emitted from many different toxins and chemicals found in everyday products. VOC Exposure. VOC is an acronym that stands for volatile organic compounds. A system must be developed to regularly review and reassess your VOC data on an ongoing basis to ensure your service offerings continue to meet or exceed their requirements. [41] VOCs contribute to the formation of Tropospheric ozone and smog. VOCs are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure. Most VOCs are not acutely toxic, but may have long-term chronic health effects. VOCs emitted by terrestrial forests are often oxidized by hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere; in the absence of NOx pollutants, VOC photochemistry recycles hydroxyl radicals to create a sustainable biosphere-atmosphere balance. VOC stands for "volatile organic compound." [51], In the U.S., standard methods have been established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and another by U.S. OSHA. Low-VOC or zero-VOC paints typically contain VOC content of less than 5 grams per liter. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 23. incompletely combusted fossil fuels or unintended evaporation of fuels. VOC Uncontrolled Emissions – 4.22 tons Ethylbenzene Uncontrolled Emissions – 0.73 tons Xylene Uncontrolled Emissions – 3.66 tons 4.22 x (1 - 0.98) = 0.08 tons of VOC 0.73 x (1 - 0.98) = 0.01 tons of Ethlybenzene 3.66 x (1 - 0.98) = 0.07 tons of Xylene . [22] A major class of VOCs is terpenes, such as myrcene. [55], The exhaled human breath contains a few thousand volatile organic compounds and is used in breath biopsy to serve as a VOC biomarker to test for diseases,[51] such as lung cancer. Many components of the atmosphere are mutually incompatible, e.g. attractants for pollinators,[2] protection from predation,[3] and even inter-plant interactions. Volatile organic compounds are compounds that have a high vapor pressure and low water solubility. [24] Induction of genes producing volatile organic compounds, and subsequent increase in volatile terpenes, has been achieved in maize using (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and other plant hormones. What is VOC? Reference gas mixtures are required for quality control of these VOC-measurements. This parameter is used to check/test the module during installation and later for system design. VOCs werden von einer Vielzahl anthropogener und biogener Prozesse in die Umwelt emittiert. 11. Volatile organic compound (VOC) are organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure at room temperature. GC instruments allow the separation of gaseous components. [20] Many VOCs are considered secondary metabolites, which often help organisms in defense, such as plant defense against herbivory. As with other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effect will depend on many factors including level of exposure and length of time exposed. Voltage at open circuit (Voc) This voltage is checked with a voltmeter across the output terminals of the solar panel module, without connecting any load. [17] During certain activities indoor levels of VOCs may reach 1,000 times that of the outside air. [42][43], Health effects include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; and damage to the liver, kidney, and central nervous system. [8] The Three-Year Action Plan for Winning the Blue Sky Defence War released by the State Council in July 2018 creates an action plan to reduce 2015 VOC emissions 10% by 2020. Worttrennung: VOC, Plural: VOCs Aussprache: IPA: [… Hörbeispiele: VOC () Bedeutungen: [1] Chemie: Flüchtige organische Verbindung Herkunft: Entlehnung aus gleichbedeutendem Englisch, in dem die Abkürzung (Initialkurzwort) für volatile organic compound(s)) ist. In this Tech Tip video from the Indoor Air Quality Association (, you'll learn that the term low-VOC is not well defined. For example, discharges from chemical and plastics manufacturing plants: "What is Smog? Eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and memory impairment are among the immediate symptoms that some people have experienced soon after exposure to some organics. Vapor Combustion Unit (VCU) to burn off VOCs, Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, High efficiency glandless circulating pump,, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. What Is VOC? At present, not much is known about what health effects occur from the levels of organics usually found in homes. California's ARB uses the term "reactive organic gases" (ROG) to measure organic gases after public hearing in September 1995. Flüchtige organische Verbindungen werden gemäß der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) nach ihrem Siedepunkt bzw. The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive requires installations in which such activities are applied to comply either with the emission limit values set out in the Directive or with the requirements of the so-called reduction scheme. The VOC (in Dutch: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) was established in 1602 as a chartered company, whose goal was to trade with Mughal India, where the majority of Europe’s cotton and silk in this period originated from. ozone and organic compounds, peroxyacyl nitrates and many organic compounds. der daraus resultierenden Flüchtigkeit eingeteilt: Allerdings gibt es keine einheitliche Definition, was ein VOC tatsächlich ist (s. Tabelle 2). VOCs are quantified and identified by two broad techniques. In the chemical industry, low VOC is used to describe a product with VOC content at or below 150 g/L. Das Wort flüchtig impliziert, dass die zu der Gruppe der VOC zählenden Stoffe aufgrund ihres hohen Dampfdruckes bzw. [13] However, this specific use of the term VOCs can be misleading, especially when applied to indoor air quality because many chemicals that are not regulated as outdoor air pollution can still be important for indoor air pollution. WHY ARE VOCs IMPORTANT? VOCs typically are industrial solvents, such as trichloroethylene; fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); Auch Wirkungen auf das Nervensystem sind bekannt.[15]. VOC: Volatile Organic Content: VOC: Voice of the Customer (systems engineering) VOC: Verification of Certification (various states) VOC: Vocative: VOC: Volvo Owners Club: VOC: Voice File: VOC: Video Output Cable: VOC: Vocabulary: VOC: Verification of Conformity: VOC: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (Dutch East India Company) VOC: Veterans Outreach Center (Rochester, NY) VOC Unter den natürlichen (non-methane) VOC dominieren die von vielen Pflanzen emittierten Terpene, darunter vor allem das Isopren. Betrachtet man die Methan-Emission aus dem Nassreisanbau und der Rinderhaltung als anthropogene Quelle für VOCs, so ergibt sich hier ebenfalls eine signifikante Quelle. [31] High indoor VOC levels are attributed to the low rates of air exchange between the indoor and outdoor environment as a result of tight-shut windows and the increasing use of humidifiers. ", "CARB regulations on VOC in consumer products", "Organic Chemicals, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers Effluent Guidelines", "Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality", "Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years", "Known and Unexplored Organic Constituents in the Earth's Atmosphere", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Volatile organic compounds in indoor environment and photocatalytic oxidation: State of the art", "ISO 16000-9:2006 Indoor air -- Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing -- Emission test chamber method", " - Eurofins Scientific", "Indoor residential chemical emissions as risk factors for respiratory and allergic effects in children: A review", "Organic compounds in office environments - sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry", "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Your Home - EH: Minnesota Department of Health", "Ausschuss zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Bauprodukten", "Technical Overview of Volatile Organic Compounds | US EPA", "Human exhaled air analytics: Biomarkers of diseases", "ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks", Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) web site of the Chemicals Control Branch of Environment Canada, EPA New England: Ground-level Ozone (Smog) Information, Examples of product labels with low VOC emission criteria. Unter den die Raumluft belastenden natürlichen Quellen sind Bakterien und Schimmelpilze zu nennen, man spricht von MVOC (Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds), die auch noch nach dem Absterben der Organismen auftreten können. Dazu gehören zum Beispiel Kohlenwasserstoffe, Alkohole, Aldehyde und organische Säuren. [19] Not counting methane, biological sources emit an estimated 760 teragrams of carbon per year in the form of VOCs. Viele Lösemittel, Flüssigbrennstoffe und synthetisch hergestellte Stoffe können als VOC auftreten, aber auch zahlreiche organische Verbindungen, die in biologischen Prozessen gebildet werden. Key signs or symptoms associated with exposure to VOCs include conjunctival irritation, nose and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction, dyspnea, declines in serum cholinesterase levels, nausea, vomiting, nose bleeding, fatigue, dizziness. Dies gilt auch für die Emission von VOC aus Produkten in die Innenraumluft. The VOCs adsorb on these materials and are afterwards desorbed either thermally (Tenax) or by elution (DNPH) and then analyzed by GC-MS/FID or HPLC. [18] The majority of VOCs are produced by plants, the main compound being isoprene. [5], The European Union defines a VOC as "any organic compound having an initial boiling point less than or equal to 250 °C (482 °F) measured at a standard atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa." Meaning: vocational. When coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) GCs can detect hydrocarbons at the parts per trillion levels. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) encompass VOCs emitted by plants, animals, or microorganisms, and while extremely diverse, are most commonly terpenoids, alcohols, and carbonyls (methane and carbon monoxide are generally not considered). The strong odor emitted by many plants consists of green leaf volatiles, a subset of VOCs. Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO), zitiert nach: 31. Mai 2008 über Luftqualität und saubere Luft für Europa, Thematische Strategie zur Luftreinhaltung, Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 40, Part 51.100(s), US EPA, DIN EN ISO 16000-6, DIN EN ISO 13999-2, VDI 4300-6, AgBB-Bewertungsschema, DIBt-Zulassungsgrundsätze, GEV-Prüfmethode für den EMICODE, Schadstoffe im Bauwesen – Hintergrundinformationen, Organische Lösungsmittel (Polyneuropathie, Enzephalopathie),üchtige_organische_Verbindungen&oldid=198041658, Wikipedia:Defekte Weblinks/Ungeprüfte Archivlinks 2019-04, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, 4. Furthermore, collection of VOCs by condensation in cold traps also accummulates a large amount of water, which generally must be removed selectively, depending on the analytical techniques to be employed. VOC umschreibt gas- und dampfförmige Stoffe organischen Ursprungs in der Luft. [26], The major source of man-made VOCs are:[27], EPA has found concentrations of VOCs in indoor air to be 2 to 5 times greater than in outdoor air and sometimes far greater. [25], Anthropogenic sources emit about 142 teragrams (1.42 x1011 kg) of carbon per year in the form of VOCs. April 2004 über die Begrenzung der Emissionen flüchtiger organischer Verbindungen aufgrund der Verwendung organischer Lösemittel in bestimmten Farben und Lacken und in Produkten der Fahrzeugreparaturlackierung …, Richtlinie 2008/50/EG des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 21. Pflanzen, Tiere, Böden und Meere sind natürliche Quellen; die industrielle Lösemittelanwendung und der Verkehr (siehe HC-Emission) gehören zu den wichtigsten anthropogenen Quellen. [34] For quality control of these measurements round robin tests are carried out, therefore reproducibly emitting reference materials are ideally required.[33]. [29] New buildings especially, contribute to the highest level of VOC off-gassing in an indoor environment because of the abundant new materials generating VOC particles at the same time in such a short time period. Dezember 2005), Jede chemische Verbindung auf der Grundlage von Kohlenstoff, ausgenommen Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlendioxid, Kohlensäure, Metallcarbide oder -carbonate sowie Ammoniumcarbonat, die an photochemischen Reaktionen in der Atmosphäre beteiligt sind. Bei der vom Menschen verursachten Freisetzung von flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen dominieren die Verwendung von Lösemitteln, Halogenkohlenwasserstoffe als Kältemittel und der Straßenverkehr. [32], Measurement of VOCs from the indoor air is done with sorption tubes e. g. Tenax (for VOCs and SVOCs) or DNPH-cartridges (for carbonyl-compounds) or air detector. The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic. The second major technique associated with VOC analysis is mass spectrometry, which is usually coupled with GC, giving the hyphenated technique of GC-MS. Die Abkürzung VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) bezeichnet flüchtige organische Verbindungen. [10] While the document does not differentiate between VOCs and other air pollutants, the CPCB monitors "oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), fine particulate matter (PM10) and suspended particulate matter (SPM)."[11]. Testing for VOCs at Home. August 2001), § 2, Abs. Another zero-VOC paint is Freshaire Choice, a Home Depot exclusive that sells for $35 to $38 a gallon. März 1999 über die Begrenzung von Emissionen flüchtiger organischer Verbindungen …, Richtlinie 2001/81/EG … über nationale Emissionshöchstmengen für bestimmte Luftschadstoffe, Richtlinie 2004/42/EG … vom 21. Jede organisch-chemische Verbindung, die wie folgt gemessen werden kann: Adsorption aus Luft auf Tenax TA, thermische Desorption, gaschromatographische Auftrennung über eine 100 % unpolare Säule (Dimethylpolysiloxane). Low VOC content can cause negative health effects — both acute and chronic — due to overexposure to the solvent that contains the hazardous compounds. VOCs are found in many building materials and are partially responsible for that new paint smell. [50] As applied to breath analysis, the following modalities are employed for sampling: gas sampling bags, syringes, evacuated steel and glass containers. Each method uses a single component solvent; butanol and hexane cannot be sampled, however, on the same sample matrix using the NIOSH or OSHA method.[52]. VOC stands for Volatile Organic Compounds, which the EPA defines VOCs as gases emitted from certain solids or liquids, like paints, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials, furnishings, adhesives, permanent markers and more. For a number of VOCs gaseous reference standards are available from specialty gas suppliers or national metrology institutes, either in the form of cylinders or dynamic generation methods. Bekanntmachung des Umweltbundesamtes: Vergleichswerte für flüchtige organische Verbindungen (VOC und Aldehyde) in der Innenraumluft von Haushalten in Deutschland. Biomass combustion, especially from rain forests. Currently, several national metrology institutes are working on the lacking standard gas mixtures at trace level concentration, minimising adsorption processes, and improving the zero gas. Alle Lebewesen (Menschen, Tiere, Pflanzen, Mikroorganismen) emittieren organische Verbindungen in die Umwelt. Das Krankheitsbild ist nicht international verbindlich durch die WHO definiert. The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. [59], Chemical fingerprinting and breath analysis. solvents used in coatings, paints, and inks. VOC (volatile organic compounds) are all compounds that appear in the gas chromatogram between and including n-hexane and n-hexadecane. VOCs werden von einer Vielzahl anthropogener und biogener Prozesse in die Umwelt emittiert. Emission occurs almost exclusively from the leaves, the stomata in particular. Für die Beurteilung von Innenraumluft ist noch eine andere Definition üblich. Volatile organic compound (VOC) are organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure at room temperature. März 2020 um 19:22 Uhr bearbeitet. The most prevalent VOC is ethane, a relatively inert compound. I don’t care if it is waterbase house paint. The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive is the main policy instrument for the reduction of industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the European Union. Paints, varnishes, and waxes all have volatile organic … [citation needed] VOC labels and certification programs may not properly assess all of the VOCs emitted from the product, including some chemical compounds that may be relevant for indoor air quality. Value of Children, Kindeswert (siehe Rational-Choice-Theorie) VOC (Audiocodec), ein Audiocodec. Explizit ausgenommen werden Kohlendioxid, Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlensäure, Carbonate, Metallcarbide, Methan, NPI definition for Volatile Organic Compounds, Organische Verbindungen mit einem Dampfdruck von mindestens 0,1 mbar bei 20 °C oder mit einem Siedepunkt von höchstens 240 °C bei 1013,25 mbar, Eine organische Verbindung, die bei 293,15 Kelvin einen Dampfdruck von 0,01 Kilopascal oder mehr hat oder unter den jeweiligen Verwendungsbedingungen eine entsprechende Flüchtigkeit aufweist, Jede organische Verbindung, die sich aus menschlicher Tätigkeit ergibt, mit Ausnahme von Methan, die durch Reaktion mit Stickstoffoxiden in Gegenwart von Sonnenlicht photochemische Oxidantien erzeugen kann, Organische Verbindung mit einem Anfangssiedepunkt von höchstens 250 °C bei einem Standarddruck von 101,3 kPa, Organische Verbindungen anthropogenen oder biogenen Ursprungs mit Ausnahme von Methan, die durch Reaktion mit Stickstoffoxiden in Gegenwart von Sonnenlicht photochemische Oxidantien erzeugen können, Chemische Verbindungen auf der Grundlage von Kohlenstoff, die durch natürliche Quellen oder durch Tätigkeiten des Menschen (z.