But between the common-sense of the average juryman and the medical science of the alienist the world of criminal facts cannot be divided fairly. Münsterberg, H , 1897 “Die verschobene Schachbrettfigur” Zeitschrift für Psychologie 15 184 – 188 Google Scholar Pierce, A H , 1898 “The illusion of the kindergarten patterns” Psychological Review 5 … Hugo Münsterberg (born June 1, 1863 in Danzig, Germany, died December 16, 1916) was a German-born American academic psychologist.. William James invited him to join the philosophy department at Harvard University, where he became a leading founder of experimental psychology in the USA. Hugo Münsterberg (June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to Industrial/Organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings.Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. The last pair has, of course, the advantage in that it sticks to the mind from its position at the end; it remains the most recent, which is not inhibited by any following pair. They rush to his mind without any reference to their past origin, picturing a timeless truth which is surprisingly correct only [p. 61] because it is the result of a sharpened memory. It is perhaps no exaggeration [p. 46] to say that a new special science has even grown up' which deals exclusively with the reliability of memory. To this group we might count not a few of the historic confessions in the Salem witchcraft tragedy. That we forget, is in itself certainly no defect and no pathological symptom. Münsterberg wrote poetry, played the cello, pub… I was thus under the most favourable conditions for speaking the whole truth and nothing but the truth, and, as [p. 41] there is probably no need for the assurance of my best intentions, I felt myself somewhat alarmed in seeing how many illusions had come in. Only a short time before a lady had come to me who showed quite similar blanks of memory for [p. 167] several days, filling the gap with imaginative ideas, and she too did not understand why her personality had been changed so suddenly. The police and every one about the house had always taken as a matter of course that the entrance was made by a cellar window, as it would have been much more difficult to use the locked doors. At that moment she felt it like a shock, his eye-glasses seemed to become large and uncanny, and from that moment on her consciousness was split and her remaining half-personality developed a pseudo-memory of its own. However, numerous other researchers were conducting and publishing research on psychole- She further stated that it was Goody Carrier that made her a witch. I expressed this as my wish at that time, repeatedly. Those who did not write the report at once were, part of them, asked to write it the next day or a week later; and others had to depose their observations under cross-examination. Another student throws in, "I cannot stand that!" Hugo Münsterberg (/ˈmʊnstərbɜːrɡ/; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist. I wondered why a revolver should be pointed at me,'" and so forth. Subtler experiments which were carried on in my laboratory for a long time showed that this subjective feeling of certainty can not only obtain in different degrees, but has, with different individuals, quite different mental structure and meaning. Yet if he slips into the service without being tested, his slight defect, which does not disturb him in practical life and which he may never have noticed if he was not just picking red strawberries among green leaves, may be sufficient to bring about the most disastrous wrecking of two trains or the most horrible collision of steamers. The reports agree further that the accused persons, when they made up their minds to confess, "fabricated their stories with much ingenuity and tact, making them tally with the statements of the accusers, adding points and items that gave an air of truthfulness.". The average man knows anyhow very little of the working of his own mind and his particular variations escape his attention. No railroad or ship company would appoint to a responsible post in its service men whose eyesight had not been tested for colour blindness. For many years no murder case had so deeply excited the whole city. But no one asks for the striking differences as to those mental details which the psychological experiments on memory and attention, on feeling and imagination, on perception and discrimination, on judgment and suggestion, on emotion and volition, have brought out in the last decade. What is meant is only that all the motives are lacking which, in our social turmoil, may lead others to the intentional hiding of the truth. Now the police began to press him and to suggest more and more impressively to him his guilt. logical research (Münsterberg, 1908; others, such as Binet and Freud, made similar, albeit less forceful, recommendations). We may consider here still another point which is more directly connected with our purpose. He feels the duty of putting his best will into the effort to reproduce the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Münsterberg appeared in Boise armed with nearly 100 psychological tests (Münsterberg, 1908, Winter, 2012). All of his friends thought him decidedly trusting and credulous and absent-minded. It is important that the court, instead of bringing out the guilty thought, shall not bring it " in " into an innocent consciousness. There is no less a transitional region for all the other mental activities. The scientific commission which reported the details of the inquiry came to the general statement that the majority of the observers omitted or falsified about half of the processes which occurred completely in their field of vision. Through all those weeks of his half-dazed condition, he had never made the least effort to weaken his so-called confessions or to protect himself in any way. That does not reflect in the least on the subjective veracity; our satisfied client of the clever fortune teller would feel ready to take oath to his illusions of memory; but illusions they remain. I could not help becoming convinced that all the external signs spoke against the interpretation of the jury. And we demand from our normal memory even that it follows somewhat our own imagination. And from that moment everything became a blur and a blank. The observation itself may be defective and illusory; wrong associations [p. 57] may make it imperfect; judgments may misinterpret the experience; and suggestive influences may falsify the data of the senses. Six days later the punishment of death was executed. In some cases it was shown that the mistakes made after a week were hardly more frequent more than those made after a day. Of course, everyone knows that the oath helps in at least one more direction in curbing misstatements. The testimonies show that the young man was everywhere regarded as a thoughtful, obliging fellow of exceptionally good disposition, but often exhibiting marked stupidity. I can remember no more than that about it. The Case of Hugo Munsterberg.” ... Münsterberg, Hugo. The sound which I produced was the tone of a large tuning-fork, which I struck with a … On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime. Historical treatments of Hugo Münsterberg have been less than adequate. To point again to an apparently mysterious experience: the crystal gazer feels in his half hypnotic state a free play of inspired imagination, and yet in reality he experiences only a stirring up of the deeper layers of memory pictures. That alone gave a hint that my house also had been entered; but from the first moment he insisted that there had been two in this burglary and that the other [p. 43] man had the remainder of the booty. The history of crime in Chicago has shown sufficiently that murder will not " out." The evidence against the suspected appeared so overwhelming that they saw only one hope to save their lives -- by turning the verdict, through their untrue confession, from murder to manslaughter. Even unusual varieties may remain still fully within the limit of soundness. Yet, this rare variety of memory is not an abnormal state, since it cannot interfere with the purposes of my life; and the remainder of mankind is, indeed, rather to be pitied for its dreams, which may bring a confusion of themselves with the real past. I suppose I must have made those statements, since they all say I [p. 170] did. York University, Toronto, Ontario. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. I had rushed in from the seashore as soon as the police notified me, in the fear that valuable contents of the house might have been destroyed or plundered. So the matter stood when my opinion was asked for, as above reported. But as soon as we examine these wonderful stories, we find that the coincidences are surprising only in those cases in which the dreams and the prophecies have been written down after the realisation. The New York Times (Precipitate Psychology, 1907) was guardedly supportive of Münsterberg: “The guilt or innocence of W.D. Mental diseases are like caricatures of a person; in the caricature too every part of the face is the same as in the ordinary physiognomy, but the proportion is lost, as one special part, perhaps the nose or the teeth are grotesquely enlarged. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Just for this reason it does not interfere with the purposes of healthy action. There is no mental trait which belongs [p. 152] to mental diseases only; whatever we find in the asylums is made up of the same material that enters into the normal interplay of human minds. In the Confait case in 1972 the English legal system had been shaken by a miscarriage of justice based on false confessions, another topic originally highlighted by Münsterberg. Wigmore, J H, "Professor Muensterberg and the Psychology of Testimony being a Report of the Case of Cokestone v Muensterberg" (1909) 3 Illinois LR 399 Wigmore, J H, Evidence in Trials at Common Law (rev by James H Chadbourn (1961- 1972) [cover title Wigmore on Evidence] To recognise where the temperament ends and the irresponsible disturbance begins is made extremely difficult by the great breadth of the borderland region. 1 Selling the Psychological Detective Hugo Münsterberg’s Applied Psychology and The Achievements of Luther Trant, 1907–30 In his 1908 collection of essays, On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime,Hugo Münsterberg expounds upon one of the principles that … A concrete illustration may indicate the method of the experimenters. Münsterberg produced more than a dozen major books, including his best known works On the Witness Stand (1908), Psychology General and Applied (1914b), and Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913b). [p. 165] Suddenly he began to confess, and he was quite willing to repeat his confession again and again. Yet I felt sure that he was innocent. Hugo Münsterberg (1908/1925) UNTRUE CONFESSIONS. They must only understand that the working of the mental mechanism in a personality depends on the constant coöperation of simple and elementary functions which the modern laboratory experiment can isolate and test. The psychologist would upset this satisfaction completely. The church was empty and, as she communed with herself, her hopelessness deepened. But the psychological assistance ought not to be confined to the discrimination of memory types and other individual differences. As to the clothes, I had simply forgotten that I had put several suits in a remote wardrobe; only later did I find it empty. Münsterberg’s 1908 book, On the Witness Stand, pioneered the development of that area of applied psychology. Hugo Münsterberg. This book contains essays on psychology and crime and eyewitness testimony. In the same way I got a vivid image of the candle droppings on the floor, but as, at the moment of the perception, no interest was attached to the peculiar place where I saw them, [p. 42] I slowly substituted in my memory the second door for the attic, knowing surely from strewn papers and other disorder that they had ransacked both places. Practical life would be satisfied with the broad statement that the witness was excited, or anxious and timid, or felt himself important, or was eager to prove his view. I stood there, also, without prejudice against the defendant. We know of ourselves, in a psychological sense, through the connected memory of our actions and of our experiences, and this reproducing self-consciousness is open to all the chances and defects which belong to our remembering in other fields. MENU. The court proceeds as if the physiological chemistry of blood examination had made wonderful progress, while experimental psychology, with its efforts to analyse the mental faculties, still stood where it stood two thousand years ago. To be sure, the core of our personality is not touched by such daily occurrences, and we can easily bridge over in our mind from the one state to the other. Moreover, this stupid boy would be the last to be able to invent suddenly a long story which fits so exactly in every detail the clinical experiences of the nervous physician and the mental experiences of the psychologist. No statistics can tell the story, but we can suppose that persons suspected wrongly of a crime may, in the face of an unfortunate combination of damaging evidence, prefer to make a false confession in the hope of a recommendation to mercy. The relative value of the various conditions for exact recollection became really measurable. It seemed most natural that the President should beg the members to write down individually an exact report, inasmuch as he felt sure that the matter would come before the courts. Is it not more natural to suppose that every day errors creep [ p. 44] into the work of justice through wrong evidence which has the outer marks of truth and trust-worthiness? But modern psychology recognises daily more strongly that the subtlest analysis of the occurrences in the borderland field is absolutely necessary if the higher ends of social justice to be reached. It is in this way only that the oath by its religious [p. 48] background and by its connection with threatened punishment can work for truth. During the last eighteen years I have delivered about three thousand university lectures. This crime itself, no matter [p. 142] who may be the criminal, was one of the frightful fruits of a sickly paltering with the stern administration of law. But this growing up of a new personality, with its own impulses and separated by its own memories from our regular life, may again increase just like those other variations of memory. and Crime), Hugo Münsterberg (1908) was highly critical of judges, attorneys, and jurors. Whether the crime was done in a state of mental responsibility is certainly a question never neglected. In short, there is no lack of social motives to make it conceivable from the start that an accused makes of his own accord a confession against himself which is not true. It would be absurd to fancy that this last turn of his mind was a made-up story to escape punishment. Contradictions between witnesses are too familiar. A series of ten such pairs may be exposed successively in a lighted field, each time one colour and one figure of two digits. Perhaps we can add still another motive which might induce a man in full possession of his understanding [p. 145] to declare himself guilty against his better knowledge. The [p. 60] real present occurrence completely transforms the reminiscences of the past prophecy and every happening is apperceived with the illusory overtone of having been foreseen. Uniquely examines Münsterberg's thinking by adopting the layout of his seminal text, On the Witness Stand (1908) Assesses Münsterberg's legacy: what he got right, what he … It is well known how many persons do not know even that they are colour-blind, or that they lack elements of imagination which are natural to others. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. The last fire in the town was laid by him; he is guilty of the unpardonable sin. We must always keep in mind that a content of consciousness is in itself independent of its relation to the past and has thus in itself no mark which can indicate whether it was experienced once before or not. No mental explanation is in order till the facts themselves are cleared up by methods for which the scholar is not prepared at all. A striking illustration is well known to those who have ever taken the trouble to approach the depressing literature of modern mysticism. [p. 161] We must not forget, moreover, that our knowledge of our own personality and its doing is also only a function of memory. Suddenly, in the midst of the scholarly meeting, the doors open, a clown in highly coloured costume rushes in in mad excitement, and a negro with a [p. 52] revolver in hand follows him. Now we should not ask a short-sighted man for the slight visual details of a far distant scene, yet it cannot be safer to ask a man of the acoustical memory type for strictly optical recollections. When he came to the police station, he was told at once that he was the guilty man; but the accused denied everything. Yet what responsible physician would ignore the painstaking experiments of the physiological laboratory, determining exactly the quantitative results as to the nourishing value of eggs or milk or meat or bread? ... (1908), was one of the earliest influences in the field of Psychology and Law1. But when I expressed thus my firm conviction, I had, nevertheless, the uncanny feeling that there was something obscure in the case. The earnestness with which caution is urged is decidedly different at different periods; the danger of accepting confessions seems to have been felt more strongly at [p. 144] some times than at others. Then two men got before me. For Wundt psychology should be a pure science detached from practical concerns, while Münsterberg wanted to […] Münsterberg’s 1908 book, On the Witness Stand, pioneered the development of that area of applied psychology. The importance of what we call mortar luminance was realised by Fraser (1908). An investigation, devoted to this problem of the relative effectiveness of recency, frequency, and vividness was carried on in my psychological laboratory. The officers who inspected the premises found the woman's hat at her Feet, but could discover no evidence whatsoever of & scuffle having taken place. I was unable to understand how the sudden change from denial to confession was brought about. But if I examine these endless reports for a real argument why the accused youth was guilty of the heinous crime, everything comes back after all to the statement constantly repeated that it would be "inconceivable that any man who was innocent of it should claim the infamy of guilt." He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. Prince's case or the reflecting eye-glass in that other case. 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