For example, the school environments of children, adolescents, and college students can affect diet, physical activity, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (Katz, 2009; Wechsler and Nelson, 2008). In 2008, the United States had 800 motor vehicles per 1,000 people compared with 526 in the United Kingdom, 521 in Sweden, 598 in France, and 554 in Germany (World Bank, 2012b). Be the first to know about new content and opportunities, Physical Environment and Climatic Condition, The weather is studied for a short period while the climate is studied for a long period, The weather involves the observation of an element of the atmosphere condition while the climate involves the observation of the average weather condition of a place, 5 Helpful Strategies To Improve Your Maths Grade, WAEC to Release 2020 WASSCE Results TODAY, Schools in Ibadan reopen after EndSARS protests, Ogun govt says schools can resume from Monday, October 26, Students: Ways to Acheive Your Academic Goals for the New School Year. On another measure, OECD data suggest that levels of trust14 are lower in the United States than the OECD average and than in all peer countries but Portugal, with Nordic countries showing the highest levels (OECD, 2011e). The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. Meaning and Concept of Social Environment: True it is that man lives in particular geographical conditions and that he has for his society a definite pattern of economic activities; yet social man is as much the product of his social environment as he is of physical surroundings and economic conditions. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. The physical environment involves the physical things such as lakes, rivers, mountains, valley etc. The heavy reliance on automobile transportation in the United States is linked to traffic levels, which contribute to air pollution and its health consequences (Brook et al., 2010; Laumbach and Kipen. 7 The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment. Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U.S. communities (Diez Roux and Mair, 2010; Mohai et al., 2009; Pastor et al., 2005). A person’s social environment is their society and all surroundings influenced in some way by humans. Environmental factors that affect physical activity (primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking) and access to healthy foods (rather than calorie-dense foods) may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions between the United States and other high-income countries. QUESTION 3: DO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. through effects on drug use, which also has consequences for violence and mental-health-related outcomes.9. Cities in the United States tend to be less compact and have fewer public transportation and nonmotorized travel options and longer commuting distances than cities in other high-income countries (Richardson and Bae, 2004). Dietary options on cafeteria menus and in vending machines, opportunities for physical activity, and health education curricula are all important to children’s health. - Weather can be defined as the state of atmosphere of a particular place and time (usually 24 hours) in regards to heat, cloudiness, sunshine, wind, rain and more. Building upon Course I, this teaching guide for the first of four units of Course II introduces the secondary student to geographic concepts and generalizations of the physical world to which man has related over time. Another important environmental influence on homicide and suicide rates is the ease of access to firearms, which has a strong association with homicide rates (Hepburn and Hemenway, 2004). The proportion of “any cycling” was extremely low and stable in the United States, at 1.8 percent, while it increased in Germany from 12.1 to 14.1 percent. The dominant land use and development pattern espoused in the United States for decades (Richardson and Bae, 2004) has created dependence on private automobile transportation, with important implications for traffic volume and associated traffic injuries and fatalities (Transportation Research Board, 2009). This is believed to occur by way of a variety of direct and indirect impacts on specific aspects of growth and development as well contributing to molding the sense of self. in weight and diabetes indicators (Ludwig et al., 2011). Jun 22, 2016 - Image result for worksheet on physical features of india .. There is some evidence that environmental factors that could affect the U.S. health disadvantage are worse or are more inequitably distributed in the United States than in other high-income countries. Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. A previous National Research Council (2011) report and a paper prepared for that study (Banks et al., 2010) did not find much evidence that the United States had unique social networks, social support, or social integration. Compass A compass helps find direction of … Elements of weather are: Climate: Climate can be defined as the average weather condition of a place for a period of many months or years. Characteristics of communities that foster distrust among neighbors, such as neglected properties and criminal activity, can affect both the cohesiveness of neighbors as well as the frequency of poor health outcomes (Center on Human Needs, 2012b). The physical environment can be virtually anything concrete that children may encounter in their lives. Social Studies is a field of study which deals with man, his relation with other men and his environment; its content is drawn from several social sciences. The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Neighborhood violent crime has in turn been linked to low birth weight (Morenoff, 2003) and childhood asthma (Wright, 2006), two other health conditions that appear to be more common in the United States than in other high-income countries. Increasing attention has focused on the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment. The aim of social group is to bring people as. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned. Although the panel did not undertake a systematic comparison of workplace conditions in the United States and other countries, it did note that U.S. employees work substantially longer hours than their counterparts in many other high-income countries. As noted above, residential segregation by income in the United States is associated with violence and related outcomes (Sampson et al.. 15Advertising also plays an important role in promoting alcohol and tobacco use (Chuang et al., 2005; Kwate and Meyer, 2009; Mosher, 2011; Primack et al., 2007). The environment has a huge impact on an individual’s behaviour and intellect. It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, the built … Research in the 1990s demonstrated that people of low socioeconomic status were more likely to experience residential segregation in the United States than in some European countries (Sellers, 1999). This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD (2012a). By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. Class 8 Social Studies on Map Reading and interpretation.Learn how to identify Features on a map, The climatic conditions of the area as well as measure distance, area and tell the direction. In this way, a common physical environmental feature may explain the coexistence of the U.S. health disadvantage on apparently unrelated health domains (obesity and injuries). QUESTION 2: ARE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WORSE IN THE UNITED STATES THAN IN OTHER HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES? A review of spatial variability in access to healthy foods found that food deserts—areas with limited proximity to stores that sell healthy foods—were more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries (Beaulac et al., 2009). Spatial Distribution of Environmental Factors. Jun 22, 2016 - Image result for worksheet on physical features of india. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. More recent work has attempted to identify the specific environmental factors that may be important to specific health outcomes, as well as the pathways through which these factors may operate. There is heavy rainfall and humidity during this period. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health, Part I: Documenting the U.S. Health Disadvantage, Part II: Explaining the U.S. Health Disadvantage, 7 Physical and Social Environmental Factors, Part III: Future Directions for Understanding the U.S. Health Disadvantage, Appendix A: Recommendations of the National Prevention Council and Evidence Cited in Its Report, Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff. Similar geographic disparities may exist for other environmental features. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. 13Even in these countries, however, automobile use is rising quickly. Once established, the land use patterns and transportation systems are self-reinforcing and may in turn hinder the development of efficient and inexpensive public transportation alternatives. Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many of the environmental factors relevant to health are directly amenable to policy. et al., 2008).15 In addition, there is evidence that food access is more inequitably distributed in the United States than in other high-income countries (Beaulac et al., 2009; Franco et al., 2008; Moore and Diez Roux, 2006), which may create problems of food access for vulnerable populations. 7As noted in Chapter 6, divorces and single-parent households have become more prevalent in the United States over time than in other high-income countries. The importance of residential environments to obesity and related conditions, such as diabetes, was recently highlighted by a randomized housing intervention: low-income participants who were randomly assigned to move into low-poverty areas experienced significant improvements. 8Analytical complexities make the isolation of these effects difficult in observational studies. Levels of residential segregation shape environmental differences across neighborhoods (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011; Subramanian et al., 2005). These patterns are present across countries and across regions within countries, as well as at smaller scales, such as across urban neighborhoods (Center on Human Needs, 2012b; Kawachi and Subramanian, 2007). Physical Environment is the part of the human environment that includes purely physical factors (as soil, climate, water supply) Physical environment means the natural and man made features of an area. Below we review the possible contributions of the environment to major conditions for which U.S. health disadvantages have been documented. In social studies, history, and geography, and all the subjects in Canadian and world studies, students In many ways, the environment can be thought of as the mid- or “meso-” level of influence linking macrolevel factors (e.g., economic and social policy) and microlevel processes (e.g., individual behavior). A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. Although Chapter 6 documented a long-standing trend of greater poverty and other social problems in the United States than in peer countries. Other data indicate that nearly 3 percent of people in the United States report “rarely” or “never” spending time with friends, colleagues, or others in social settings. Given the established correlation between neighborhood, race, and socioeconomic composition and various health-related neighborhood resources in the United States, this greater segregation could also result in greater exposure of some population sectors to harmful environments (Lovasi et al., 2009). In general, U.S. residential environments are highly dominated by Americans’ reliance on private automobile transportation. The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia” means to surround. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. In an interesting link between physical and social environments, Putnam (2000) has argued that increasing sprawl could contribute to declining social capital in the United States because suburban commutes leave less time for social interactions. It centres on the development of man, how man influences his environment and how the environment influences him in return. The social environment has been equated with his culture and writers like Graham … We have noted that there exist variations over the surface of the earth in its physical as well as cultural environment. Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers (Bambra, 2011).10. However, cross-national comparisons of workplace safety, other occupational health characteristics, labor market patterns, and work-related policies were beyond the scope of the panel’s review. Social Science - Natural Science – Physical Science are inter … Physical environment definition is - the part of the human environment that includes purely physical factors (as soil, climate, water supply). As noted in Chapters 1 and 2, homicide rates in the United States are markedly higher than in other rich nations. The official provider of online tutoring and homework help to the Department of Defense. Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Social capital depends on the ability of people to form and maintain relationships and networks with their neighbors. Here we provide selected examples of the ways in which levels or distributions of physical and social environments relevant to health might differ between the United States and other high-income countries. This characteristic has promoted dispersed automobile-dependent development patterns (Transportation Research Board, 2009) with consequences for population density, land use mix, and walkability (Richardson, 2004), all of which may have health implications. Social studies is the study of man and his environment . Social support has appeared in many (but not all) studies to buffer the effects of stress (Cohen and Wills, 1985; Matthews and Gallo, 2011; Ozbay et al., 2007, 2008). Physical and social environment 303 makers are interested in the ‘social capital’ of areas. 9Although findings have not always been consistent, levels of safety, violence, and other social environmental features have also been found to be associated with walking and physical activity (Foster and Giles-Corti, 2008). Other important differences in work-related policies include employment protection and unemployment benefits, as well as family and sickness leave (see Chapter 8). Ready to take your reading offline? The physical and social environment where adolescents are active differs from that of children and adults. Nor did the panel examine whether neighborhood conditions exert a greater influence on access to health care in the United States than in peer countries. Resilience to the adverse health effects of stress has also been tied to factors that could influence how one perceives a situation (threat versus challenge) and how one responds to stressors (Harrell et al., 2011; Hennessy et al., 2009; Matthews and Gallo, 2011; Ziersch et al., 2011). Environmental studies refer to an extensive and systematic study of nature/environment and of its physical, biological, social, and cultural factors, and the nature and characteristics of relationship between man and environment. Legislative policies in other countries limit circulation and ownership of firearms by civilians. At least one study of cross-national differences in social capital found that the United States ranked at an intermediate level compared with other high-income countries in measures of interpersonal trust; the study also found that the United States ranked higher than many other countries on indicators of membership in organizations (Schyns and Koop, 2010). Studies conducted in the United States and other high-income countries have found that “walkability” (which is measured by such proxies as building density, land use mix, and street connectivity) predicts walking patterns (Durand et al., 2011; Inoue et al., 2009; Sundquist et al., 2011; Van Dyck et al., 2010). built environment refers to the presence of (and proximity to) health-relevant resources as well as to aspects of the ways in which neighborhoods are designed and built (including land use patterns, transportation systems, and urban planning and design features). Sort by: BrainPOP Social Studies Free movies, games, activities, and more for students interested in social studies. It can be used to refer to the social, natural or built environment. The student understands how humans adapt to and/or modify … 14Trust data are based on the question: “Generally speaking would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” Data come from two different surveys: the European Social Survey (2008 wave 4) for OECD European countries and the International Social Survey Programme (2007 wave) for non-OECD Europe (OECD, 2011e). A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity. Scheme of work for Social Studies for Junior secondary school one (1) first term covers the following topics and sub-topics; Meaning, Scope and Nature of Social Studies, Objectives & Importance of Social Studies., Physical Environment: Meaning, Types and Features, Resources in Our Environment and their Uses, Environmental Problem, Causes, Effects and Solutions, Social Environment: Meaning … What also seems important is the stability of social connections, such as the composition and stability of households7 and the existence of stable and supportive local social environments or neighborhoods in which to live and work. This evidence suggests that broad environmental factors may play an important role in health. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation systems). - Climate is the weather conditions of an area in general over a long period of time, usually 30-35 years. The physical environment comprises all the different factors of nature, including trees, lakes, the ocean etc. Changes in the condition of the atmosphere happens as a result of changes in the following elements which may also be called elements of weather. According to the World Gallup Poll, people in the United States are less likely than people in other high-income countries to express confidence in social institutions, and Americans also have the lowest voting participation rates of OECD countries. In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight (Christakis and Fowler, 2007), which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify. - Vegetation are the plants collectively found in a particular habitat. It varies from different places because of the changes in climate condition, Types of Vegetational belts/The Nigeria forest is divided into, JSS1 Social Studies Third Term: Physical Environment. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Resource on Sharebility Uganda - a pool of free educational materials and a public marketplace for premium teaching & learning content. A digital library supporting Digital Pedagogy at School and Homeschooling at home. All rights reserved. There was also less variation in active travel among socioeconomic groups in Germany than in the United States (Buehler et al., 2011). Features of social environments that may operate as stressors (including perceptions of safety and social disorder) have been linked to mental health, as have factors that could buffer the adverse effects of stress (e.g., social cohesion, social capital) (DeSilva et al., 2005; Mair et al., 2008). Work on the “transmission” of obesity through social networks has highlighted the possible importance of social norms in shaping many health-related behaviors (Christakis and Fowler, 2007; Hruschka et al., 2011; Kawachi and Berkman, 2000).8 A long tradition of sociological research links these social features not only to illness, but also to risks of violence (Morenoff et al., 2001; Sampson et al., 1997). A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter (solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air) on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity (Brook et al., 2010; Laumbach and Kipen, 2012; Mustafić et al., 2012; Tzivian, 2011). Image result for worksheet on physical features of india ... 5th Grade Geography Geography Worksheets … Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation … evidence is more limited to compare these countries in terms of social cohesion, social capital, or social participation. a) Struggler b) one without difference c) stubborn d) illiterate. A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes. One theory for the tendency of some immigrant groups to have better health outcomes than might be expected on the basis of their incomes and education (see Chapter 6) is the social support immigrants often provide one another (Matthews et al., 2010). As stated in a thorough review by Hepburn and Hemenway (2004, p. 429): High-income countries outside the United States have much lower rates of handgun ownership than the United States, and the licensing, registration, and safe storage regulations they have make it much harder for known criminals to obtain firearms. Check Eligibility. This finding is in sharp contrast to studies of the United States, which have found associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and the absence of resources that are important to public health (Diez Roux and Mair, 2010). Important areas for future cross-national research on environmental factors and health include (1) characterizing levels and distributions of environmental risk factors using comparable measures across countries; (2) documenting inequalities in the distribution of these environmental factors; (3) identifying the extent to which these environmental factors affect health and the extent to which their effects are modulated by individual-, community-, or country-level factors; (4) examining directly the contribution of environmental factors to health differences between the United States and other high-income countries; and (5) studying national, regional, and local country policies that may curb levels of adverse environmental exposures, reduce the extent to which they are inequitably distributed, or buffer their effects. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Although there are many different definitions of social capital, it is generally taken to mean the sense of community or trust within an area (Lochner, Kawachi and Kennedy, 1999; Harpham, Grant and Thomas, 2002). Residential segregation by income and race have also been linked to drug use (Cooper et al., 2007) and HIV/AIDS risk (Poundstone et al., 2004), other contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage. Man influences his environment and how the environment to major conditions for which U.S. health disadvantage > Resources ; social... On population exposures to air pollution ( OECD, 2012b ) it can be found a! Man, how man influences nature and to what extent nature delivers its bounties constitute another objective of environmental have! Policy determinants available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental.... The earth in its physical as well as cultural environment in general, U.S. residential environments highly... 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